Madeleine Leininger: Transcultural Nursing Theory

Madeleine Leininger (13 July 1925 in Sutton, Nebraska, U.S.) is a pioneering nursing theorist, first published in 1961. Her contributions to nursing theory involve the discussion of what it is to care. An international scholar, Madeleine Leininger’s vision has guided nurses and other health personnel in the discovery of a new body of nursing knowledge – to provide culturally congruent and competent care practices across the world.

TRANSCULTURAL NURSING THEORY


Transcultural nursing with established clinical approached to clients with varying cultures are relatively new. According to Madeleine Leininger (1987) founder of the filed of transcultural nursing in the mid 1960s. The education of nursing students in this field is only now beginning to yield significant results.
Today nurses with a deeper appreciation of human life and values are developing cultural sensitivity for appropriate individualized clinical approaches. Religious and Cultural knowledge is an important ingredient in health care. If the client do not respond as nurse expects the nurse may interpret it as unconcern or resistance the nurse then can be anxious and frustrated in order to incorporate cultural knowledge in care cultural knowledge in care. It is important to understand some definition and cultural components that are important in health care.
For a nurse to successfully provide care for a client of a different cultural or ethnic to background, effective intercultural communication must take place. Intercultural communication occurs when each person attempts to understand the other’s point of view from his or her own cultural frame of reference. Effective intercultural communication is facilitated by the nurse identification of areas of commonalities. After reaching a cultural. understanding, the nurse must consider cultural factor throughout the nursing process.

Metaparadigms:
Person: Recipient of care, including physical, spiritual, psychological, and sociocultural components. Should refer to families, groups, and communities

Environment: included events with meanings and interpretations given to them in particular physical, ecological, sociopolitical or cultural setting. Existing forces outside the organism and in the context of culture

Nursing: care has the greatest meaning which explains nursing. Culture needs to be understood for quality care to exist.

Health: not distinct to nursing as many disciplines use this term. Complete physical, mental and social well-being and functioning

Reaction:
Strength:

The culture care theory is significant to the practice because application of the theory may lead to improved clinical decision making. Nurses with a deeper appreciation of human life and values are developing cultural sensitivity for appropriate individualized clinical approaches. Religious and Cultural knowledge is an important ingredient in health care. If the client do not respond as nurse expects, the nurse may interpret it as unconcern or resistance making the nurse feel anxious and frustrated.

Weakness
The primary sources of error in clinical decision making are (a) misperception of outcomes, and (b) misperception of the values patients place on outcomes.

The Culture Care Diversity & Universality theory does not focus on medical symptoms, disease entities or treatments.

Sometimes, nurses are self-conscious about cultural differences and afraid of
asking questions about areas of difference or by asking so many questions that
they seem to try to invade the client’ personal life.

Opportunities

One of the earliest nursing theories and remains the only theory focused specifically on Transcultural nursing with a culture care focus and is used worldwide today.
The emergence of the TCNS (Transcultural Nursing Society). The mission of the group is to enhance the quality of culturally congruent, competent, and equitable care that results in improved health and well being for people worldwide.

Threats:
not readily accepted, taught, and practiced by nurses largely due to cultural resistance, ignorance, and racial biases.

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